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AAC (Autoclaved Aerated Concrete) is a fire-resistant, lime-based cemented building block gaining attraction in new markets across the world. AAC has gained recognition in new areas around the world as a single-component building material. This lightweight building material is made by autoclaving a predetermined mixture of fine siliceous materials such as finely pulverized sand or fly ash with a binder such as Portland cement or lime. The weight of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) block is four times lighter than that of conventional concrete. Its unique structure, consisting of millions of microscopic pores, provides maximum solidity at a low weight. Aerated concrete offers excellent thermal protection due to the poor heat conductivity of air. It protects against cold and heat, allowing for single-shell structures that provide more space, save time, and reduce costs, all of which are significant factors for builders or property developers.
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Benefits of AAC Blocks
The advantages are the high strength-to-weight ratio, low thermal conductivity, temperature and humidity stability, and fire resistance. Residential, multistory buildings, commercial and industrial development can all benefit from AAC products. Sand, lime and water, are natural elements that are used to create these items. The building industry’s autoclaved aerated concrete sector is currently in the midst of a massive expansion cycle.
Customers are looking for lower costs, so the autoclaved aerated concrete industry must use competitive techniques. AAC is not a new building system. However, it is in India for the first time. Though relatively unknown in India, autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) is now one of the numerous “green” or “environmentally friendly” building products on the market. As a result of the need, it is an excellent enterprise to invest in for entrepreneurs.
Fly ash is readily available and of an acceptable grade. Users believe that the most significant attributes of blocks are strength, durability, finish, availability, and pricing.
Traditional manufacturers have shown a high level of willingness to employ fly ash in their products. Technical support and increased product awareness among the general public are thought crucial for supporting the transition in production procedures.
Customers who contact producers show a strong preference for fly ash products. To promote the usage of fly ash bricks and blocks, increased media awareness and favourable policies are viewed as critical. Currently, the cost of fly ash blocks is comparable to that of cement blocks and normal bricks. On the other hand, these blocks have greater strength, fire resistance, earthquake resistance, low weight, reduced breakage, and save 40% on structural costs.
Because coal-fired power plants generate 60% of the country’s electricity, the country has a large supply of fly ash, which amounts to 60 million tonnes per year. Despite these attempts, the current situation is terrible, with barely 5% of the country’s total ash being used in various industries or goods. The need for building bricks increases day by day as the population grows and construction activities increase in response to the rising standard of life.
Fly-Ash: This raw material has been carefully examined throughout this Project profile. However, Thermal Power Plants have access to this unused raw resource. This item is exempt from all kinds of taxes. Only the entrepreneurs are responsible for transportation costs.
Lime: Proper aeration of the product requires the application of active powered lime. We can acquire the active lime directly in phase one.
In phase 2, we can consider backward integration and constructing a lime powering unit on-site to gain a competitive edge and a lime burning kiln within the industrial grounds.
However, the project finances do not cover the cost of powering the unit and the limestone furnace. Different lime varieties are available, and the design of the mix can be chosen using the raw components to achieve the highest quality possible.
OPC: The main binder material for this project is OPC cement. It will increase the strength of the bricks while also improving the consistency of the quality.
It also assures that the same is more cost-effective. The use of OPC will become standard. Another major benefit of employing OPC (in comparison to alternative binders) is its widespread availability through a statewide network of cement companies’ retail outlets.
Production Process in Brief
COAL FLY ASH
Coal fly ash is brought to the slug preparation pond by wheel loader, mixed with rated water to generate suitable coal fly ash concentration slurry and then pumped into the slurry tank for storage and use.
The powder is moved to the lime powder silo for storage after entry into the plant and is ready for the lift.
During the slurry preparation, the gypsum in the storehouse is added in the necessary proportion to the slurry pond.
The cement is sent by tank truck to the factory and pumped immediately into the cement silo used.
PASTE OF ALUMINUM POWDER
Until necessary, the purchased aluminium powder paste is kept in the warehouse. It is lifted, weighed and blended with an aluminium mixer to the second level of the batching structure to make 5% suspending liquent when necessary.
SCRAPE AND WASTE SLURRY
Wastewater will be put into the ball mill for use as groundwater from the casting machine cleaning. The scrape is smoothed and pumped from the cutting machine into a waste slurry container for use.
CASTING, MIXING, and BATCHING
In the loading facility to be measured, coal fly ash is pumped from the lower slurry tank to an electronic scale. The control system will cut off the pump to cease pumping slurry when the slurry concentration reaches the batching requirement. The measured slurry is unloaded directly into the casting mixer.
A single screw conveyor at the bottom of each silo will transport lime and cement to an electronic scale in the batching plant. Once the measurement has reached the appropriate amount, it is sent to the casting mixer by a screw conveyor.
To manufacture each mould suspended liquid one by one, the aluminium powder is manually measured and added to the aluminium blender.
The last suspended fluid is immediately transferable into the casting mixer. The slurry temperature should be up to a suitable process temperature before casting. The mould is carried out using a ferry car to the bottom of the mixer.
CUTTING AND GROUPING
When the green block has reached the appropriate strength after pre-curing, the crane will transport it to the cutting machine section.
The green block is cut to the proper size after the removal of the mould.
After cutting, the green block is carried to the curing trolley for grouping by crane with the base plate in front of the autoclave. Each autoclave has seven trolleys, each with 14 pieces of the green block.
AUTOCLAVED AND FINISHED PRODUCT
The green block is then winded into the autoclave for curing after grouping. The total curing time is around 12 hours, with a pressure of approximately 1.2 Mega Pascal and a temperature of roughly 1850°C. After the product is cured and transferred to the store yard, the autoclave will be removed.
RETURNING TO THE BOTTOM PLATE, MIXING WITH THE MOLD AND OILING
After unloading, with the help of the crane, the side plate on the trolley is lift to the returning rail and come back to the side of the cutting machine, and from here, it joins with the mould and comes back to the mould returning the line which needs to be cleaned and lubricated before again use.
Key Points Cover in Sample Project Report on AAC Blocks Manufacturing
Project Report Table of Contents
Apart from this, all the information is being provided. To help in preparing project reports.
|2||Use Of AAC Bricks|
|4||Raw Materials, Sources And Availability|
|5||Brief Production Process|
|6||Technical Specifications Of AAC Bricks|
|7||Process Flow Chart|
|8||Project At Glance|
|9||Computation Of Production (Bricks)|
|10||Raw Material Requirement (Per Cubic Metre)|
|11||Raw Material Consumption|
|12||Computation Of Sale (Bricks)|
|13||Projected Balance Sheet Statement|
|14||Statement Of Cost Of Production And Profitability|
|15||Projected Fund Flow Statement|
|16||Repayment Schedule Of Term Loan|
|17||Calculation Of D.S.C.R.|
|19||Consumption Of Power & Fuel|
|20||Break Up Of Salary (Administrative Staff)|
|21||Labour & Wages (Workers)|
Comparison between ACC blocks v/s CLC blocks v/s red clay bricks in House Construction.
|Properties||REDBRICK||AAC BLOCKS||CLC BLOCKS|
|1.||General Description||Clay is used in masonry construction and is widely used for building construction.||Autoclaved aerated concrete blocks are three times lighter in weight than red bricks and cut into masonry blocks or larger planks and panels made.||Cellular Light Weight Concrete (CLC) Blocks are a cement-bonded solid ready by mixing a slurry of cement.|
|2.||Raw Material||Clay, sand, lime, iron oxide and magnesia||Lime, cement, gypsum and an aeration agent, bit of Fly Ash||Cement, fly ash slurry, water, and a foaming agent.|
|3.||Properties||Modular Size: 190X90X90 & 190X90X40
Non Modular Size:230X110X70 & 230X110X30
|Length: 400, 500 or 600 mm.
Height: 200, 250 or 300 mm.
Width: 100, 150, 200 or 250 mm.
|Length: 400, 500 or 600 mm.
Height: 200, 250 or 300 mm.
Width: 100, 150, 200 or 250 mm
|4.||Cost||These bricks are cheaper but environmental damage is high; therefore, the overall cost is more.||These blocks are quite expensive, but overall, masonry cost is low because it consumes lesser mortar.||These blocks are cheaper than AAC blocks. Although the individual block is costly overall masonry costs are low because it needs less mortar.
|5.||Environmental Impact||It is made of clay that’s why it is not sustainable.
It reduces the top fertile soil hence the agricultural land area decreases. Also, it emits more CO2 during manufacturing.
|The waste of these types of blocks is recycled and used again.
It emits less CO2 during manufacturing.
|Fly ash is used in manufacturing which helps in reducing solid waste for dumping.
A very little amount of CO2 is released during manufacturing.
From the previous data and discussions, we conclude the cost-effectiveness of using AAC blocks for construction work.
Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) is made of natural raw components, standard and widely available. As a result, it is both resource-efficient and environmentally benign.
There are no contaminants, byproducts, or harmful waste products produced by the energy used in the manufacturing process. AAC’s workability aids in the reduction of waste in the workplace.
Based on the results of the experiments done in this study, AAC blocks’ compressive strength is higher than that of conventional clay bricks. This makes it suitable for creating walls framed with RCC.
AAC blocks have a density of 1/3 that of ordinary clay bricks, and there is no change in wet conditions. It aids in the reduction of the structure’s dead load.
Because both sides of an AAC block wall are plane, the necessary thickness of plaster is relatively low, resulting in a 50% savings in cement and sand requirements for plaster construction.
Building costs are decreased by up to 20 per cent as the dead wall load is minimized on the beam and light components are reduced.
Which is better, a brick or AAC block?
AAC blocks are better than conventional bricks as AAC block is eco-friendly whereas traditional red brick is harmful to the environment. AAC blocks have less material wastage and have high thermal and sound insulating properties and these days recommended to use more.
Why do cracks occur in AAC blocks?
Because of the Haphazard arrangement of the AAC blocks, changes in the positioning of the beams, change in the skeletal movements, and a shift in water contents or because of temperature variation, cracks develop within the AAC blocks.
Does plastering required in AAC blocks?
No, AAC blocks have a plain surface and wire cut, and because of that, no plastering is required in the internal walls, and only painting or putty is very effective still. External plastering is required.
Are AAC blocks cost effective?
It shows that the total cost savings in public buildings materials are around 46.3 per cent when AAC blocks are used instead of regular bricks. It reveals the cost-effectiveness of structures developed utilising AAC blocks in relation to buildings designed using regular bricks.
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