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In milder climates, European cucumber is one of the most important high-value vegetable crops farmed in greenhouses and to some extent in shade net homes. It’s high in vitamins A and C and minerals and is an economical and environmentally friendly way to produce the fruit. Cucumbers grown in greenhouses are substantially longer than other cucumber varieties. They’re also more substantial. Cucumbers have a forest green skin tone and a softer texture, so many greenhouse owners cover their cucumbers separately to protect them from injuries.
Cucumbers are now being grown in greenhouses in the same way as tomatoes are. Cucumbers are semi-tropical produce that requires moisture, temperature, humidity, strong light, and fertiliser. Cucumbers can produce in record quantities if diseases and insects are avoided, but they are more sensitive to low temperatures than tomatoes. Progressive growers are choosing to grow cucumbers in greenhouses, which can be a lucrative business. However, producing cucumbers in a greenhouse necessitates great oxygenation of the plant roots. It is critical to have a well-functioning drainage system. It is necessary to make the soil friable and to add organic matter to it.
In comparison to North American cucumbers, seedless and lengthy European cucumbers have become increasingly popular. The European varieties have the advantage of not needing to be peeled. To avoid excessive moisture loss, thin-skinned species are frequently shrink-wrapped and waxed. Because it is a parthenocarpic species, it does not require pollination.
Table of Contents
- 1 How to Download Project Report
- 2 Market Potential
- 3 Soil Requirement
- 4 Soil Preparation
- 5 Temperature Required
- 6 Planting
- 7 Cucumber Seed Varieties
- 8 Major Diseases In Cucumber Farming
- 9 Technology Of Production
- 10 Project Location
- 11 Polyhouse Shed
- 12 Sterilisation Of The Soil And Growing Beds
- 13 Planting, Pruning, And Training
- 14 Fertigation
- 15 Controlling Disease And Pests
- 16 Post-Harvest Handling And Storage
- 17 Key Points Cover in Sample Project Report
- 18 Important Tips
- 19 FAQ’s
How to Download Project Report
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Cucumber marketing is a critical component of the project’s success. This can be grown in poly homes and has a lot of promise. Cucumber is commonly eaten as a salad in India and is farmed for its mature fruits. Because of its exquisite taste and high level of ascorbic acid and other vitamins and minerals, it has just been designated as a high-value crop in India. It has taken pride of place among vegetables in Indian cuisine. Cucumber ripe fruits are consumed fresh.
Cucumber consumption is on the rise in India these days, thanks to increased demand from urban customers. There is also a strong export demand. Fruits with a longer shelf lifespan, moderate size, tetra lobed fruits with a beautiful dark colour, mild pungency, and decent taste are necessary for the export marketplace. Cucumber is in higher demand among customers. Many farmers are interested in cultivating this crop in under-protected settings since this type offers significant quality and quantitative advantages over traditional production. However, due to the crop’s low production, the supply is insufficient.
Cucumber crops require a well-drained, well-structured, fertile soil with high porosity. With a regular water supply, soil structure stability and porosity are critical. It is recommended that a substantial amount of organic waste and compost be used to provide these conditions. Cucumbers can be grown in sandy loam soils with a pH of 5.5 to 6.5.
Around 80% of cucumber roots grow, develop, and disseminate in soil up to 20 cm below the surface; they have a low tolerance for drought, flooding, and cold temperatures. Cucumber soil preparation should be done with the same care as other crops, including loose soil, to ensure optimum aeration. Both a bed and a raised bed can be constructed in a polyhouse. The width of the bed should be 60-100 cm, depending on the spacing between rows, and the depth should be 25-30 cm. The cucumber bed’s topsoil layer should be thinner than the subsoil layer. Plastic mulch is used to cover a raised bed.
Plastic mulch provides several advantages, including weed control, soil temperature regulation, and water loss reduction, all of which boost yield. When the earth is moist, lay down plastic mulch. The afternoon is the best time to apply plastic mulch since it will be tighter and stretched. Cucumber may be cultivated in a variety of media besides soil. Rockwool is a popular media. Perlite and pumice are two other material options. Cucumbers can also be grown in bags or slabs with a depth of 15-30 cm. Cucumber is greatly harmed by high salinity; electric conductivity should be kept at 2 dS m-1 during the initial stage and up to 2.5 dS m-1 throughout the growing stage (Savvas et al., 2013). High salinity causes major issues, resulting in unsatisfactory yields.
The temperature of the atmosphere affects plant development, fruit commencement and growth, and fruit quality. Cucumbers need to be grown at a temperature of around 25°C to grow quickly. Germination requires an average temperature of 25–35 °C, as well as adequate soil moisture, and takes 2-3 days. If the temperature drops below 13–15°C, the shoot will not grow properly. Cucumbers can tolerate a maximum temperature of 38–40°C.
Cucumber is primarily grown in poly houses by transplanting. On the other hand, direct seeding in bed is used for planting in the early fall or late summer, when the temperature is normally warm enough for good seed germination. Cucumber cultivation can be successful if transplantation is done correctly. If the soil temperature is too low, the root system of young seedlings may be damaged, and growth may be limited. Overgrown or old seedlings, on the other hand, do not establish in soil. Cucumber seedlings should be planted deeply in the soil and irrigated right away to form a stand. A plant requires approximately 0.5 m2 of sunshine.
Cucumber Seed Varieties
Local cucumber seed cultivars
- Japanese Long Green
- Straight site
- Poise Seeti
- Co – 1
- Other Local Varieties.
Hybrid Cucumber Varieties
- Pusa sun yogh
- Hybrid -1
- Mahyco – 4
- Other hybrid varieties.
Major Diseases In Cucumber Farming
- Downy Mildew
- Cucumber mosaic virus
- Cucumber Beetles
- Bacterial Wilt
- Powdery Mildew
Technology Of Production
Implementing novel technology for both production and post-harvest management will be critical to the project’s success. The following are the key aspects of the production technology that will be used.
Cucumbers may be grown commercially in poly houses in practically every part of the country. However, variables such as the availability of high-quality water, labour, and infrastructure facilities such as electricity, roads, and communication are considered while choosing a location.
G. I. pipes will be employed as the structural material for the polyhouse. The UV-stabilized polythene film will have a thickness of 250 microns. After 3 to 5 years, the poly film must be renewed. A 50 percent shade net will be deployed in the summer, and lime will be painted on the poly film to lower light intensity. The four-way foggers will be utilised to keep the polyhouse at the proper humidity level.
Sterilisation Of The Soil And Growing Beds
The soil is loosened to a fine tilth within the polyhouse, and then beds are made with a 75cm width, 45cm height, and a 45cm working area between two beds. Before bed formation, @10kg per m2 of well-decomposed organic manure or Vermicompost, sand, and sawdust is added to the soil. For 3-5 days, the beds are soaked in 4 percent formaldehyde (4 litres/m2 of bed) and covered with a polythene sheet. After that, the polythene is removed, and the beds are raked every day to remove the contained formaldehyde vapours before planting completely.
Planting, Pruning, And Training
On raised beds, ready seedlings are planted at 60cm between rows in a paired row arrangement with 30cm between plants. To reduce sucking pest infestation in the polyhouse, the seedlings are sprayed with Imidacloprid (0.3mVl) before planting. Watering the bed with a rose can is done every day until the seedlings are well established. After that, drip irrigation is set up regularly to provide 2-3 litres of water per square metre each day, depending on the weather.
Using water-soluble fertilisers, a total dose of 150 kg N: P205: O per hectare is applied via fertigation during the full crop growth period of 6-8 months. Starting the third week after planting, a water-soluble fertiliser supplying 19 percent of each NPK is applied twice a week at a rate of 2.5- 4g/m2 for each fertigation.
Controlling Disease And Pests
Thrips and mites are sucking pests that harm the majority of greenhouse crops. Insects with fringed wings are dangerous during dry periods (high temperature). Acephate (1g/l), Imidacloprid (O.3mlll), or Fipronil (1 ml) are used to suppress thrips. Bacterial wilt is induced by soil, a bacterium that is normally prevalent in acidic coastal soils. An obstruction in the xylem channels causes the plant to wilt suddenly. Streptocycline (1.5g/l) is commonly used as a drench.
Post-Harvest Handling And Storage
To guarantee a uniformly beautiful pack, fruits are graded by size and colour. Shrink-wrapping each fruit and storing it at 7- 8°C for 45-60 days will extend its shelf life.
Key Points Cover in Sample Project Report
Project Report Table of Contents
|1||Purpose Of The Document|
|2||Project Profile (Financial)|
|9||Economics Of The Project|
|10||Proposed Cost Of Project|
|11||Projected Profitability Statement|
|12||Projected Balance Sheet|
|13||Computation Of Interest On Term Loan|
|14||Term Loan Repayment Schedule|
|15||Computation Of Debt Service Coverage Ratio|
Apart from this, all the information is being provided. To help in preparing project reports.
SOME IMPORTANT TIPS ABOUT CUCUMBERS FARMING
- Cucumbers are usually ready for the first harvest two months after planting. This, however, is dependent on how cucumber varieties are grown. In general, a healthy cucumber plant can produce 12 to 15 cucumbers per vine, depending on the variety.
- If your cucumbers aren’t growing, you’ll need to deal with wilts and cucumber beetles. Cucumbers grow best at temperatures between 19°C and 24°C.
- Long winters or temperatures below 12°C, on the other hand, would kill your cucumber plant.
- Check the soil moisture if your cucumber plant is dying. The cucumber vine may begin to die if it receives too much or too little water.
- When cucumbers turn a bright medium to dark green and firm colour, it’s time to pick them.
- Cucumber bugs can be controlled with sticky traps.
- Powdery mildew disease is the main cause of cucumber plants turning white (white patches on leaves).
- Anthracnose, blight, and leaf spot are the most common causes of browning cucumber plants.
- Check the soil nutrients if your cucumber isn’t growing or reaching a large size. It could be owing to fertiliser or nutrient inefficiency.
- Depending on the soil, cucumber plants require 1 to 2 inches of water per week.
- If your cucumbers taste bitter, it’s because of the organic component cucurbitacin.
- Cucumber blight is readily cured with baking soda or by removing leaves with white spots and fungal spores, among other things.
- You can also apply any approved fungicide in place of garden mulch.
That’s all there is to it when it comes to commercial cucumber farming profit and economics.
What are the common mistakes found during cucumber farming?
Avoid these mistakes:
- Avoid using poor-quality seeds.
- Do not plant seeds too early.
- Do not use poor soil for farming as this is an invitation to failure.
- Improper irrigation leads to bad growth.
- Farmer uses insufficient fertilisers, and manure leads to low yield.
- Use different pesticides at different intervals to control disease and pests.
- Weed management is not proper means to produce healthy crops remove weeds as soon as possible. Otherwise, they inhibit growth.
- Always do proper stacking of cucumber plants; otherwise, soil-borne disease attacks if plants crawl on the ground.
- If pesticides apply without control, it has a negative impact on growth and yield.
- Harvest them correctly and on time.
- Good marketing strategies are required to sell your cucumber.
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For whom are these formats useful?
- CA Chartered Accountants
- Tax Consultants
- Small Business Owners
- Who want to self study
In addition to those who want to prepare project reports themselves.
Sample Project Report Format
In our project report format, we cover technology details, its diagrams, flow chart etc. as and when required or deemed fit to include. Also, prepare in-depth financial calculations which is necessary for the Investor/bank.
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