Compostable Starch Bags Project Report



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Plastic is a material that is extensively used. Petroleum-based polymers are now widely employed in commercial applications. Polyurethane and polyethylene polymers are found in man-made plastics. This type of plastic can take a century or more to decompose. It is difficult for microorganisms to breakdown since it is not recognised as food. When plastics are burned, they emit carcinogenic compounds that are dangerous to both individuals and the environment.

Bioplastics are an environmentally beneficial alternative to today’s commercial plastic. Bioplastics are biodegradable plastics made entirely of renewable raw plant ingredients. Various combinations of renewable raw ingredients and plasticizers were used to create seven different types of bioplastics. Starch is employed as the primary biopolymer in this study to create biodegradable bags.

India has a stronger affinity for plastic, which has become a pervasive product in recent years. It makes our lives easier. India’s economy is built on the production of plastic. In comparison to developed countries (India, China, Albania, Afghanistan, Argentina, and Bangladesh), developing countries (India, China, Albania, Afghanistan, Argentina, and Bangladesh) produce a lot of plastic (Japan, Germany, Singapore, South Korea). India, China, and other Asian countries produce the most plastic. There are around 22000 plastic processing units in India, as well as 150 machinery manufacturers. Plastic manufacture employs a variety of types and technologies.

Plastic is widely used for the following reasons:
  • Versatile
  • Lightweight
  • Relatively inexpensive
  • High moisture resistance
  • Its moulding capacity to various shapes attracts people
  • Even if people are aware of the dangers of plastic, its use cannot be curtailed. Because of its substance and lack of biodegradability, it poses a significant environmental risk.

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Compostable Liners & Bags are a must-have waste diversion solution for any household, business, or zero-waste event, and they’re manufactured from renewable materials.

Compostable has a different connotation than biodegradable in everyday usage. While “biodegradable” just refers to an object’s capacity to decompose in the presence of bacteria or other living organisms, “compostable” in the plastics sector refers to the ability to degrade in aerobic surroundings with appropriate temperature and humidity controls. Compostable materials are those that can decompose biologically at a compost site, breaking down into carbon dioxide, water, inorganic compounds, and biomass at a rate consistent with compostable materials.

Unlike plastic bags, compostable bags are a responsible environmental decision that reduces pollution and harmful waste for the world’s and society’s health.

Lifespan of a compostable bag

The lifespan of a compostable bag is as follows: 

Production: Maize starch is extracted from the raw material, a natural polymer derived from corn starch, wheat, or potatoes.

The microbes then break it down into a smaller lactic acid molecule, which serves as a starting point for forming polymer chains of polylactic acid.

The polymeric cross-linking chains of polylactic acid give way to a compostable plastic sheet that can make a variety of non-polluting plastic items.

This plastic sheet is transferred to companies that manufacture and change plastic bags.

The compostable bags are then delivered to commercial entities for usage and commercialization in their daily lives.

The bag is used and then discarded (estimated time of use: twelve minutes).

The time it takes for biodegradation to occur is believed to be between 6 and 9 months.

Bioplastics made from starch have become a never-ending renewable resource with short and closed life cycles, such as high rates of large-scale farming and low water consumption, which stimulates the cropping sector’s expansion and strengthens crop extensions on the way to extinction. In comparison to producing plastic bags, the agents of contamination have decreased by 1000 percent throughout the entire cycle.

The unique feature of a compostable bag is that it may be used as fertiliser for indoor plants, promoting healthy growth and encouraging the reuse of plastic bags. With the compostable bags, not only is it possible to generate reusable disposal, but it is also possible to avoid accumulating unnecessary trash for hygienic landfills and to reduce garbage congestion, all to benefit society’s and the environment’s public health.

Market Potential

India has announced that single-use plastics will be prohibited in the country by 2022. Consumers are becoming more aware of the negative consequences of plastics on the environment. As a result, manufacturers and other plastic packaging users may seek cost-effective alternatives and substitutes to cater to ecologically sensitive consumers and comply with government laws. The starch of sugar, potatoes, and corn, etc., is one of the most widely used plastic substitutes in packaging. To promote an environmentally responsible image, leading online meal delivery services are also converting to starch packaging. As a result of current developments, a significant opportunity to expand this specialised market has opened up in the country.

It is estimated that 5 to 7% of India’s corn production is used to make starch. According to this estimate, 1.5–2 MMT of corn starch is produced per year. Despite demand from the paper, adhesives, poultry/animal feed, and fireworks industries, starch accounts for such a small percentage of total maize production, which means there is plenty of room for capacity increase. As a result, the availability of maize starch for packaging may be adequate. The regulatory environment and customer awareness are two more reasons driving the maize starch packaging industry forward.

Higher input costs and, as a result, prices, as well as the inclusion of contaminants in finished corn starch bags such as plastic and metal, are significant roadblocks to the market’s expansion. These problems can be solved by increasing the availability of raw materials (corn), lowering costs, and improving manufacture according to EN, ASTM, and IS/ISO standards, reducing contamination.

India’s economy

India’s economy is one of the world’s fastest-growing, with 1.252 billion inhabitants, and it is a founding member of the SAARC and G4 nations. Some of India’s major cities are Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Chennai, Jaipur, Ahmedabad, and Kolkata. The country’s per capita income is low, at USD 1165 in nominal terms and USD 5238 in PPP terms. By 2020, the Compostable Plastic Market is estimated to develop at a CAGR of 7%.

However, by 2020, technological advancements and rising demand from various industries, including cars, packaging, healthcare, retail, and agriculture, will result in a robust demand in the Indian Compostable Starch Bags business. In the next years, increased demand for biodegradable plastic will be driven by government regulations and growing environmental concerns.

Advantages And Benefits

Compostable bags, unlike normal plastic bags and even some biodegradable plastic bags, are formed of vegetable stuff like sugar starch. The bags, along with whatever was placed within them, will compost if exposed to adequate moisture. Standard biodegradable bags may degrade into smaller and smaller plastic fragments. While this is better for the environment than a conventional plastic bag, and biodegradable bags will never end up in a giant piece in the ocean, plastic chemicals can still poison the environment. Benefits are:

  • Easily accessible
  • Compostable certification
  • Thick bag unlikely to break when carried short distances
  • Fits into regular garbage cans
  • Breaks down well with moisture
  • Made from sustainable plant materials

Limitations Of Compostable Starch Bags

  • Compostable/Biodegradable plastics have become more expensive.
  • Compostable/Biodegradable plastics require the weather to cooperate with their disposal.


The following machinery is required for the production of Compostable Starch Bags:

  • Extrusion Machine: The principal machinery for converting small granules into long sheets in the extrusion machine.
  • Cutting Machine: This machine is used to cut the sheets into various sizes.
  • Printing Machine: The printing machine is used to print logos, brands, and trademarks.
  • Packaging Machine: This machine packs the printed bags into different sizes of carrying bags.

Raw Material Requirement

The Compostable Starch Bag requires the following as primary raw material.

  • Cassava starch
  • Glycerine
  • Vinegar
  • Water
  • Ink for Printing
  • Additives

Manufacturing Methodologies


  • Extraction of starch
  • Testing of starch
  • Preparation of Bio-film
  • Moulding of bioplastic.


  1. For the preparation of bioplastic, we need materials like starch powder, vinegar, glycerine, and water.
  2. At first, all the ingredients are mixed up in a container.
  3. Then it is made to stir continuously in a container under a mild flame.
  4. Stirring continuously leads the mixture to form into a sticky consistency.
  5. When the consistency is obtained, the mixture is allowed to dry.
  6. Then the biofilm is prepared.

Cassava pellets

  1. Bio-film is converted into pellets using a twin-screw extruder machine to mold the bio-film into a required material.
  2. Then the pellets are heated under certain temperature and converted into the desired shape.
  3. Then the pellets were converted to bags.

Biodegradable Bags Preparation

The product may be made using the “Blown Film Extrusion method.”..Small plastic pellets (called resin) are melted down under regulated conditions to become molten and malleable in the blown film extrusion process. They are then extruded (pressed) through a circular die gap to make a continuous plastic tube.

Bag Making

  • The resin is melted under strict temperature and pressure controls. After that, the air is introduced into the molten bioplastic, which is blasted out and extruded via a circular die to create a continuous tube of thin bioplastic.
  • The tube is then split off while still molten, stretched, and inflated to the desired size and thickness.
  • After cooling, the inflated bioplastic is coiled into rolls and then transformed into bioplastic bags.
  • The bioplastic tubing is then put into a machine that rolls it out to a specific length before cutting it off and heat-sealing one end to form a bag.
  • The size of the bags produced determines the production.
  • Machine cycle rates of up to 70,000 bags per hour have been seen with tiny bags in rare circumstances. In some cases, a big bag may move at a rate of 2,000 bags per hour.
  • The bags’ quality depends on having good equipment that keeps the material flowing smoothly throughout the operation.

Extrusion Process

  • The method of extrusion is used to make things with a definite cross-sectional profile. The desired cross-section of material is pushed through a die.
  • Test for Bioplastic
  • Effects of strong acid
  • Tensile test
  • Effects on weak acid
  • Flammability test
  • Biodegradability test
  • Effects of water
  • Effects of air.

Key Points Cover in Sample Project Report 

Table of Contents

Sr. No.Particulars
1Purpose Of The Document
3Advantages Of Compostable Starch Bag
5Compostable Starch Bag Market Analysis
6Description Of Machinery & Equipment
7Manufacturing Process
8Machinery & Equipment’S Required
9Land &Building Required
10Raw Material Requirement
11Labour Requirement
12Compostable Starch Bag License & Registration
13Compostable Starch Bag Size
14Implementation Schedule
16Project At A Glance
17Computation Of Production
18Computation Of Sale
19Utility Charges
20Break Up Of Labour & Staff Charges
21Projected Profitability Statement
22Projected Balance Sheet
23Cash Flow Statement
24Closing Stock
25Assessment Of Working Capital Requirement
26Traditional Method
272Nd Method
283Rd Method
30Calculation Of D.S.C.R
31Repayment Schedule Of Term Loan

Apart from this, all the information is being provided. To help in preparing project reports.


In the future, biodegradable polymers will play a bigger role in the packaging industry. Post-use biodegradable plastics and other biowastes like paper, food, and garden waste are generally unsuitable for a landfill due to their potential to release methane under anaerobic conditions. The overall amount of trash transported to landfills is decreased by employing these biological treatment methods, and the composts produced can be employed as important soil improvers. Widespread public awareness of bioplastic polymers and effective infrastructure for stringent control is crucial to obtaining their benefits, according to the World Resources Institute (WRI) in the UK. 

Q&A (Questions/Answers)

What are the challenges in the growth of this market?

Some of the primary performance concerns with biodegradable plastics are low barrier qualities to air, water, and oxygen and low heat resistance. This limits its use in a variety of sectors, including electronics and automobiles. Furthermore, biodegradable plastics’ penetration in many applications is limited by weak mechanical characteristics such as low impact and tensile strength and process capabilities. These biodegradable polymers’ performance limits provide a significant obstacle to the market’s expansion.

What is the COVID-19 impact on the global biodegradable plastics market?

Consumer goods companies’ routine activities have been interrupted by the Covid-19 outbreak. The pandemic has influenced the successful marketing model, which has aided the correct functioning of the company model. According to the Institute for Supply Management Research, 76 percent of firms had to lower sales objectives by an average of 23 percent due to supply chain interruptions throughout the world. Some industries, such as domestic cleaning and frozen foods, have experienced an increase in customer demand. In contrast, others have seen a decline in sales and a large reduction in food traffic in retail outlets. With the shift in customer demand toward e-commerce, businesses needed to adapt. As a result, the whole consumer products sector has been driven into the digital era.

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